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Berek I, Huszak I, Durko I. (1975) The effect of kryptopyrrole on the porphyrin auxotrophic strains of bacillus subtilis. Experientia 31, 185.

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Brame, C.J. , R.G. Salomon, J.D. Morrow en J.L. Roberts (1999) Identification of extremely reactive ketoaldehydes (isolevuglandins) as product of the isoprostane pathway and characterization of their lysyl protein adducts. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 13139-13146.

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Cutler, M.G., D.J. Graham en M.R. Moore (1990) The mauve factor of porphyria, 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-delta-3-pyrroline-2-one: effects on behaviour of rats and mice. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 66, 66-68.

Cutler P. (1974) Pyridoxine and trace element therapy in selected clinical cases. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3, 89-95, 1974.

Donnay, A. en G.E. Ziem (1995) Protocol for evaluating disorder of porphyrin in chemically sensitive patients. MCS Referral & Resources, Baltimore.

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Durko, I, I. Berek en I. Husak (1975) Effects of kryptopyrrole on porphyrin synthesis in Bacillus subtilis 168. Hoppe-Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 356, 1679-1684.

Durko I, Berek I, Huszak I. (1976) On complex formation between haem and oxidation products of kryptopyrrole, as a possible explanation for enhanced porphyrin synthesis of bacillus subtilis 168 strain. Proceedings of the International Congress of Biochemistry 10, 104.

Durko I, Engelhardt J, Szilard J, et al. (1984) The effect of haemodialysis on the excretion of the mauve factor in schizophrenia. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 13, 222-232.

Edelman E. (1996) Natural Healing for Schizophrenia, Borage Books, Eugene, Oregon.

Ellman, G.L., R.T. Jones, en R.C. Rychert (1968) Mauve spot and schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 125, 849-851.

Evans, G.W. (1980) Normal and abnormal zinc absorption in man and animals. Nut. Reviews 38, 137-141.

Frydman RB, Tomaro ML, Wanschelbaum A, et al. (1972) The enzymatic oxidation of porphobilinogen. FEBS Letters, 203-206.

Gebel, L. (1973) Occurrence of the mauve factor in schizophrenia. Psychiatr. Pol. 7, 153-159.

Gendler, P.L., H.A. Duhan en H. Rapoport (1978) Hemopyrrole and kryptopyrrole are absent from the urine of schizophrenics and normal persons. Clin. Chem. 24, 230-233.

Goddijn-Wessel, T.A.W. (1996) Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor for placental abruption or infarction. Eur. J. Obst. Gynecol. Repr. Biol. 66, 23-29.

Gorchein, A. (1980) Urine concentration of 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl[delta-3-]pyrrolin-2-one ('mauve factor') is not causally related to schizofrenia or to acute intermittent porphyria. Clin. Science 58, 469-476.

Gorchein, A., L.D. Mitchell en A.T. Rogers (1979) Pharmalogical properties of kryptopyrrole and its oxidation products on isolated sciatic nerve of rat and on guinia-pig ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol. 65, 23-27.

Gorchein, A. en A.T. Rogers (1979) The 'Mauve factor' of schizophrenia and porphyria, 5-hydroxyhaemopyrrole lactam, has low pharmalogical potency on guina-pig ileum. Experienta 35, 1078-1079.

Gorchein A., Mitchell L.D. en Rogers AT. Pharmacological properties of kryptopyrrole and its oxidation products on isolated sciatic nerve of rat and on guinea-pig ileum. British Journal of Pharmacology 65, 23-27, 1979.

Gorchein A. en Rogers A.T. The ‘mauve factor’ of schizophrenia and porphyria, 5-hydroxyhaemopyrrole lactam, has low pharmacological potency on guinea-pig ileum. Experientia 35, 1078-1079, 1979.

Gorchein A. Urine concentration of 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-[delta 3]-pyrrolin-2-one (‘mauve factor’) is not causally related to schizophrenia or to acute intermittent porphyria. Clinical Science 58, 469-476, 1980.

Graaf, T. de, H. van Rossum (2000) Hebt u HPU?; de ontdekking van een vrouwenziekte. Mix Media, Harderwijk, 205 pp.

Graff, H. en A. Hanford (1961) Celiac syndrome in the case history of five schizophrenics. Psychiatric Quarterly 35, 306-313.

Graham D.J.M, Moore M.R., Thompson G.G., et al. (1976) The effect of 4-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-[delta 3]-pyrrolin-2-one on porphyrin synthesis in the rat. Biochemical Society Transactions (Great Britain) 4, 1089-1091.

Graham D.J.M., Thompson G.G., Moore M.R., et al. (1977) The effect of 4-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-[delta 3]-pyrrolin-2-one on haem metabolism in the rat. Biochemical Society Transactions, (507th Meeting, Cardif) 5, 1468-1470.

Graham D.J.M., Brodie M.J., Moore M.R., et al. (1977) Quantitation of a urinary pyrrolic metabolite found in excess in acute intermittent porphyria. Scottish Medical Journal 22, 243.

Graham D.J.M. (1978) Quantitative determination of 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-[delta 3]-pyrrolin-2-one in urine using gas-liquid chromatrography. Clinica Chimica Acta 85, 205-210.

Graham D.J.M., Brodie M.J., McColl K.E.L., et al. (1979) Quantitation of 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-[delta 3]-pyrrolin-2-one in the urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 9, 49-53.

Graham D.J.M., Thompson G.G., Moore M.R., et al. (1979) The effects of selected monopyrroles on various aspects of heme biosynthesis and degradation in the rat. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 197, 132-138.

Grinstein, M., M.F. de Sancovich en H.A. Sancovich (1978) The isolation of another new compound from the urine of humans with porphyria cutanea tarda. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 543, 583-585.

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Hatch T, Lascelles J. (1972) Accumulation of porphobilinogen and other pyrroles by mutant and wild type Rhodopseudomonas speroides: regulation by heme. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 150, 147-153.

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Heufelder, A.E. (2001) Kryptopyrrolurie. Comed 2001, 5, 110-111.

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Hinshaw C.T. (1981) Urinary pyrrole (mauve factor malvaria, pyrroluria, kryptopyrrole). Review, (Bimonthly publication: The Olive W. Garvey Center for the Improvement of Human Functioning, Wichita, September 1981.

Hoffer, A. (1962) Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in treatment of schizophrenia. In: Niacin therapy in psychiatry. C.C. Thomans, Springfield, Illinouis.

Hoffer A. (1963) The presence of malvaria in some mentally retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 67, 730-732.

Hoffer A. (1965) A comparison of psychiatric inpatients and outpatients and malvaria. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry 1,430-432.

Hoffer A. (1965) Malvaria, schizophrenia and the HOD test. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2, 175-178.

Hoffer A. (1965) D-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): a review of its present status. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 6, 183-255.

Hoffer, A. (1966) The presence of malvaria in some mentally retarded children. Amer. J. Ment. Def. 67, 730-732.

Hoffer, A. (1966) Malvaria and the law. Psychosomatics 7, 303-310.

Hoffer, A. (1967) A program for the treatment of alcoholism: LSD, malvaria and nicotinic acid. In: The use of LSD in psychotherapy and alcoholism. H.A. Abramson, editor; Bobbs-Merril, New York, Howard W. Sams and Co., Inc, Indianapolis; pp. 343-406.

Hoffer, A. (1967) Treatment of schizophrenia with a therapeutic program based upon nicotinic acid as the main variable. In: Molecular basis of some aspects of mental activity. Vol. II. O. Walaas, ed. Academic Press, New York.

Hoffer, A. (1970) The psychophysiology of cancer. J. Astma Research 8, 61-76.

Hoffer, A. (1971) Megavitamin B3 therapy for schizophrenia. Can. Psychiatric Assoc. J. 16, 499-504.

Hoffer, A. (1972) Treatment of hyperkinetic children with nicotinamide and pyridoxine. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 107, 111-112.

Hoffer, A. (1973) Mechanism of action of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in the treatment of schizophrenia. In Orthomolecular Psychiatry, eds. Hawkins D, Pauling L. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. pp. 202-262, 1973.

Hoffer, A. (1976) Natural history and treatment of thirteen pairs of identical twins, schizophrenic and schizophrenic-spectrum conditions. J. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5, 101-122.

Hoffer, A. (1979) Behavioral nutrition. Journal of Orthomolecular psychiatry 8,169-175.

Hoffer, A. (1983) Nutrition and behavior. In: Medical Applications of Clinical Nutrition, Bland J., editor, Keats Publishing, New Canaan, Connecticut; pp. 222-268, 1983.

Hoffer, A. (1989) Orthomolecular medicine for physicians. Keats Pub., New Canaan, Connecticut.

Hoffer, A. (1991) Orthomolecular medicine. In: Molecules in natural science and medicine, an encomium for Linus Pauling. Z.B. Maksic en M. Eckert-Maksic, ed. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex. Great Brittain.

Hoffer, A. (1994) Vitamin B3 and schizophrenia: discovery, recovery, controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, Ontaria.

Hoffer, A. (1994) Chronic schizophrenic patients treated ten years or more. J. Orthomolecular Medicine 9, 7-37.

Hoffer, A. (1995) The discovery of kryptopyrrole and its importance in diagnosis of biochemical imbalances in schizophrenia and in criminal behavior. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 10, 3-7.

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Hoffer, A. en M.J. Callbeck (1959) Effect of nicotinic acid on liver function and leucocytes. Can. Med. Ass. J. 80, 736-737.

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Hoffer A. en H. Osmond (1962) The association between schizophrenia and two objective tests. Canadian Medicial Association Journal 87, 641-646.

Hoffer, A, en H. Osmond (1963) Malvaria: a new psychiatric disease. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 39, 335-366. 

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Hoffer, A. en H. Osmond (1963) Malvaria: a new psychiatric disease. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 39, 335-366.

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Pfeiffer, C.C., V. Iliev (1973) Pyrroluria, urinary mauve factor causes double deficiency of B6 and zinc in schizophrenics. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Proceedings 32, 276. , (Abstracts of a paper presented at the Federeation Annual Meeting) 350.

Pfeiffer C.C., Sohler A, Jenney C.H. and V. Iliev (1974) Treatment of pyroluric schizophrenia (malvaria) with large doses of pyridoxine and a dietary supplement of zinc. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3, 292-300.

Pfeiffer, C.C. (1974) The clinical applications of zinc metabolism. In: Zinc metabolism. (E. Prasad, red. ) C.C. Thomas, Springfield Illinois.

Pfeiffer, C.C. e.a. (1974) Treatment of pyroluric schizophrenia (Malvaria) with large doses of pyridoxine and a dietary supplement of Zinc . J. Orthom. Psychiat. 3, 1974.

Pfeiffer, C.C. en E.H. Jenney (1974) Fingernail white spots: possible zinc deficiency. JAMA 228, 157. 1974.

Pfeiffer, C.C. (1975) Mental and elemental nutrients: A physician guide to nutrition and health care. Keats Publishing, New Canaan, Connecticut.

Pfeiffer, C.C., Bacchi D. (1975) Copper, zinc, manganese, niacin and pyridoxine in the schizophrenias. Journal of Applied Nutrition 27, 9-39.

Pfeiffer, C.C. (1976) Psychiatric Hospital versus Brain BioCenter in diagnosis of Biochemical Imbalances. J. Orthom. Psych. 6, 28-34.

Pfeiffer, C.C. en B. Barnes (1981) Role of zinc, manganese, chromium, and vitamin deficiencies in birth defects. Intern. J. Environmental Studies 17, 43-57.

Pfeiffer C.C. (1981) Extra nutrients and mental illness. Biological Psychiatry. 16, 797-799.

Pfeiffer, C.C. en E.R. Braverman (1982) Zinc, the brain and behavior. Biol. Psychiat 17, 513-532.

Pfeiffer, C.C. (1983) Zinc and manganese in the schizophrenias. J. Orth. Psychiatr. 12, 215-234.

Pfeiffer C.C., LaMola S. (1983) Zinc and manganese in the schizophrenias. The Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 12, 215-234.

Pfeiffer, C.C. (1984) Schizophrenia and wheat gluten enteropathy. Biological Psychiatry 19, 279-280.

Pfeiffer, C.C. (1986) Nahrstoff-Therapie bei psychischen Störungen. Haug-Verlag. pp. 59-80.

Pfeiffer, C.C. en P. Holford (1987) Mental illness and schizophrenia: The Nutrition Connection. Thorsons Pub. Group, Wellingborough.

Pfeiffer C.C. (1987) Nutrition and Mental Illness. Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont, 1987.

Pfeiffer, C.C. (1988) Voeding en Psyche. Deventer: Ankh-Hermes.

Pfeiffer, C.C., L. Audette (1988) Histapenie around the world. OrthoMoleculair 3, 125-129.

Pfeiffer C.C., L. Audette (1988) Pyroluria-zinc and B6 deficiencies. International Clinical Nutrition Review 8, 107-109.

Pfeiffer, C.C. en L. Audette (1988) Pyrrolurie, Zink und B6-Defizienzen, Ortho-Molekular 5, 194-197.

Pfeiffer, C.C. (1993) Nährstoff-Therapie bei psychischen Erkrankungen. Karl Haug Verlag, Heidelberg. 4e Auflage.

Prochazka, E. (2001) Pyrrolurie - das missing link. Zeitschrift Umweltmedizin 14-4-2001.

Rao, B.S., H.S. Narayanan en G.N. Reddy (1971) Investigations on urinary excretion of 3,4 dimethoxyphenylethylamine (the pink spot), the mauve factor and aromatic compounds in patients with schizophrenia. Indian J. of Medical Research 59, 455-460.

Ross, M.O. , U. Stölzel, M. Doss (200?) Arzneistoffe bei akuten hepatischen Porphyrien und Empfehlungen zur Anästhesie.

Unknown 4 pp.

Russell C.S. (1972) Biosynthesis of porphyrins and the origin of the "mauve factor". Journal of Theoretical Biology 35, 277-283.

Salomon, R.G., W. Sha, C. Brame, K. Kaur, G. Subbanagounder, J. O'Neil, H.F. Hof and L.J. Roberts (1999) Protein adducts of iso[4]levuglandin E2, a product of the isoprostane pathway, in oxidized low density lipoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 20271-20280.

Segermann, J., A. Hotze, H. Ulrich en G.S. Rao (1991) Effect of α-lipoic acid on the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and on serum lipid-, protein- and glucose levels. Arzneimittel Forschung 41, 1294-1298.

Siow, Y.L. en K. Dakshinamurti (1985) Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in adult rat brain. Exp. Brain Res. 59, 575-581.

Sohler A., Renz R.H., Smith S., et al. (1967) Significance of hydroxyskatole and mauve factor excretion in schizophrenia. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry pp. 327-331, July-August 1967.

Sohler A., Beck R., Noval J. (1970). Mauve factor re-identified as 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethylpyrrole and its sedative effect on the CNS. Nature 228,1318-1320.

Sohler A., Holsztynska E., Pfeiffer C.C. (1974) A rapid screening test for pyroluria; useful in distinguishing schizophrenic subpopulations. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 3, 273-279.

Sohler, A. (1975) Letter: Urinary kryptopyrrole. Biological Psychiatry 10, 685-686.

Sohler. A., C.C. Pfeiffer (1982) Vitamin B6 nutritional status of a psychiatric outpatient population. J. of Orthmol. Psych. 11, 81-86.

Somogyi, I., I. Huszak, I. Durko en T. Jardanhazy (1981) The effect of kryptopyrrole on the brain-activity of cats: a quatitative EEG-analysis. Z. Elektroenzephalogr. Elektromyogr. Verwandte Geb. 12, 212-215.

Thome, K. (2002) Pyrrolurie - ein unbekanntes und doch verbreitetes Phänomen. WzG-Verlag 6 pp.

Vonnegut, M. (1975) The Eden Express. Praeger Publishers, Inc., New York, 1975.

Walker J.L. (1975) Neurological and behavioral toxicity of kryptopyrrole in the rat. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 3, 243-250.

Ward J.L. (1975) Relationship of kryptopyrrole, zinc and pyridoxine in schizophrenics. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 4, 27-31.

Walsh, W. (2003) Commentary on nutritional treatment of mental disorders. Integrative Psychiatry email list for professionals. Lit 109

Watt, J.A., G.W. Ashcroft, R.J. Daly en J.R. Smythies (1969) Urine volume and pink spots in schizophrenia and health. Nature 221(184), 971-972.

Weir, M.R. R.C. Keniston, J.I. Enriquez en G.A. McNamee (1991) Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to dopamine. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 33, 118-121.

Wettenberg L. (1972) Pharmacological and toxic effects of kryptopyrrole in mice. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 1, 141-144.

Wetterberg L. (1973) Pharmocological and toxic effects of kryptopyrrole in mice. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 78, 78-80.

Wettenberg, L. en B. Formgren (1976) Pharmacological and biochemical properties of kryptopyrrole and its oxidation products possibly related tot acute intermittent porphyria. Annals of Clinical Research 8 (suppl. 17), 162-167.

Wilson, C. (1996) Porphyrinopathies in the MCS community. Our toxic times 7, 1.

Zank, M. (2004) Gibt es Zusammenhänge zwischen Kryptopyrolurie, MCS, CFS, Fibromyalgie, KISS-Syndrom und Schleudertrauma? Umwelt-Echo jan. 2004, pp. 33-34. Lit106a Lit106b

Zenzinger, I. (2006) Kryptopyrrolurie. Zeitschrift für Isopathie und Regulationsmedizin 76, 5-9.


The author wish to thank Woody McGinnes and several other for their help to compose this pyrroluria bibliography.

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